Over the last twenty years, the landscapes of cities throughout the world have been transformed by the construction of walled enclosures. What explains the proliferation of these 21st-century separation walls? Scholar Andy Clarno, assistant professor of Sociology and African American Studies, attempts to answer this question through an analysis of walled enclosures in Johannesburg and Jerusalem. In Johannesburg, the South African elite surround their homes with brick walls and electric fences and put gates around their neighborhoods. Dr. Clarno’s research brings together the tools of comparative urban ethnography and comparative historical sociology. His research focuses on: the relationship between neoliberal restructuring and the political transitions in each state, the growth of marginalized populations, the politics of security, and the production of walled enclosures.